Galtung, Johan. 1969. “Violence, Peace, and Peace Research.” Journal of Peace Research 6, no. 3: 167-191.
This source is a pivotal text in the early field of Peace Research written by Johan Galtung, the founder of the Peace Research Institute Oslo and the Journal for Peace Research. It outlines Galtung’s visualization of peace in the positive sense of freedom from structural violence and contrasts this to the dominant, realist-IR narrative of negative peace or an absence of direct violence. Galtung’s work is notable for its expanded conceptualization of violence from simply referring to physical or psychological harm to instead describing any avoidable action or event that prevents agents from achieving their full potential.