Menkhaus, Ken. 2006/2007. “Governance without Government in Somalia Spoilers, State Building, and the Politics of Coping.” International Security 31, no. 3: 74-106.
This source examines the troubled history of peacebuilding efforts in Somalia, a state that, since the collapse of its national government in 1991, has been the subject of no less than twelve separate internationally-led peace operations. Despite the resources and expertise invested, however, the notion of constructing a centralized state in line with the liberal peace doctrine of the international peacebuilding community remains highly contested in Somalia due to historical experiences of repression under President Siad Barre. Interestingly, however, the case study of Somaliland in Northwestern Somalia offers an insight into potential alternative visualizations of peace with an emphasis on hybrid systems of government fusing community practices with institutions seen more commonly in industrialized Western democracies.